Match Cricket – This article is about the international format of cricket. For the women’s format, see Wom Test cricket.
A test match between South Africa and England in January 2005. The two men wearing black trousers are the umpires. Test cricket is played with the traditional white kit and usually with a red ball – pink ball in full 1 day/night tests
Test cricket is a form of first-class cricket played internationally between suspended teams from full member countries of the International Cricket Council (ICC). The match consists of four rounds (two per team) and will last up to five days. In the past, some Test matches had no time limit and were called Endless Tests. The term “Test match” was originally coined in 1861-62, but in a different context.
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Test cricket did not become an officially recognized format until the 1890s, but many 1877 international matches were retrospectively given Test status. The first such match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) in March 1877 between what was known as the Australian Combined XI and James Lillywhite’s XI, the latter a visiting glish professional team. Matches between Australia and England were first called “Test matches” in 1892. The first retrospective Test list was published by South Australian journalist Clares P. Moody was written two years later and accepted by the end of year.
Twelve full ICC nations now play Test cricket. Day/night Tests were authorized by the ICC in 2012 and the first day-night match between Australia and New Zealand was played at Adelaide Oval in November 2015.
Main articles: History of cricket History of Test cricket 1870 to 1883 History of Test cricket 1884 to 1889 History of Test cricket 1890 to 1900
Teams designated as “Gland” or “All Gland” began play on the 18th, but these teams were not very strong. Early international cricket was disrupted by the French Revolution and the American Civil War. The first international cricket match between the United States and Canada was played on September 24 and 26, 1844 (bad weather prevented the match from being played on the 25th).
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The foreign travels of the Glish national teams began in 1859 with a trip to North America, Australia and New Zealand. In 1868, Aboriginal Australians were the first overseas team organized for glandular tourism.
In early 1877 two fine rival tours were offered to Australia, James Lillywhite advertising a professional tour and Fred Grace for an amateur. The Grace tour ended and it was Lillywhite’s team that visited New Zealand and Australia in 1876-77. The two matches against a combined Australian XI were later billed as the first official Test matches. Australia won the first match by 45 runs and the second by a margin. After mutual tours established a pattern of international cricket, The Ashes was established as a competition during England’s Australian tour in 1882. The surprise victory for Australia inspired a fake cricket obituary in the Sporting Times the following day: the phrase “The body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia” led to the subsequent creation of urns for the ashes.
The 1884–85 series was the first to be played over five matches: the cricketer Alfred Shaw, writing in 1901, considered the team “the best left-handed”. South Africa became the third team to play Test cricket in 1888-89 when they were toured by an understrength team. Australia, England and South Africa were the only countries to play Test cricket before the First World War.
The term “Test match” was coined during the magnificent tour of Australia in 1861-62, but in a different context. This meant that the Glish team would test themselves against each of the Australian colonies.
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After Lillywhite’s tour, Australian teams began with Dave Gregory’s team in 1878. In early 1892, eight beautiful teams visited Australia and seven Australian teams visited the continent. In its 25 February 1892 issue, Cricket: The Weekly Record of the Game revived the term “Test match” and applied it loosely to the three internationals which had just been played in Australia by Lord Sheffield’s XI. The MCG, billed as the combined team of Lord Sheffield and Australia. The report began: “There was little that could be done to organize the first of three major Test matches for January 1.”
The first list of matches to be considered “Test” was compiled by South Australian journalist Clares P. Developed and published by Moody in his 1894 book, Cricket and Cricketers of Australia, 1856 to 1893–94. Moody’s proposal by Charles W. Alcock, editor of “Cricket in gland”, was well received and his list of 39 crickets was published in the December 28, 1894 issue as part of an article entitled “First Test Collection”. The list begins with the MCG match, played 15-17 March 1877, followed by the DS with the match played at the Sydney Association Grounds, 14-20 December 1894.
All 39 matches were retrospectively recognized as Test matches, such as the unlisted match at Old Trafford in 1890, which was pitched without a ball being bowled. No South Africa matches were included in Moody’s list, but the three against England were also given retrospective Test status.
Test matches are the highest level of cricket played between competing national teams with “Test status” as determined by the International Cricket Council. Since June 2017
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, twelve national teams have test status, the most directly promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017.
Testing status is granted to a country or group of countries by the ICC. There are currently twelve teams that have been granted this status: international teams that do not have Test status can play first-class cricket in the ICC Intercontinental Cup, on similar terms to Tests.
Nine of these teams represent independent nations: the Commonwealth cricket team represents the Commonwealth of Independent States and Wales, the West Indies are an amalgamation of five Caribbean countries and territories, and Ireland represents both the Republic of Ireland and the ‘Northern Ireland.
Following the D’Oliveira case in 1969, South Africa was banned from all forms of cricket from 1970 until apartheid in 1991.
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Zimbabwe’s testing status was voluntarily suspended in 2006 due to poor results, but was reinstated in August 2011.
The ICC has put forward a number of proposals to reform the test status system, including the creation of two tiers with promotion and relegation,
And/or a play-off between the ICC Intercontinental Cup winners and the lowest Test scoring team.
For statistical purposes, Tests are considered a subset of first-class cricket. Performances in first-class matches only count towards the first-class statistical record, but performances in test matches count towards both test statistics and first-class statistics.
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Statisticians have developed criteria to determine which matches count as Tests if they were played before Test status was officially established. There are exceptions, including the simultaneous world tour teams of 1891–92 (in Australia and South Africa) and 1929–30 (in the West Indies and New Zealand), all of which international matches have Test status.
In 1970, a five-match Test series was played between England and the Rest of the World’s XI: these matches, originally scheduled between England and South Africa, were postponed after South Africa were suspended from international cricket by their government . apartheid policy. Although initially given Test status and included as Test matches in some record books, including the Wisd Cricketers’ Almanack, this was later withdrawn and the principle stipulated that official Test matches could only be played between nations (countries geographically and small demographics of the West). India has been on the coalition side since 1928.)
Despite this principle, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match between Australia and the World XI in October was an official Test match: some writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, have determined that the ICC had ignored. and remove this game from your records.
The “Test match” series in Australia between Australia and the World XI in 1971-72 and the commercial “Supertests” hosted by Kerry Packer as part of his world cricket tour between “WSC Australia”, “WSC World XI” and “WSC West Indies” from 1977 to 1979 until 2021 have never been considered official Test matches.
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A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, with a break between sessions of 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea. However, session times and intervals may be changed in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings is expected close to the interval, the interval may be taken immediately; if playing time is lost, for example due to bad weather, the session time may be adjusted to compensate for the lost time; if the batting team is nine wickets short at the scheduled tea break, th
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